Darren Pattinson recorded career best figures of 6-30 as Lancashire crumbled in their first innings at Trent Bridge.
All out for 113 from 38 overs, an 85-partnership from Steven Croft and Stuart Law was of little consolation to the visitors after the top four were dismissed having scored just 10 runs.
Charlie Shreck had opener Paul Horton lbw before Pattinson struck twice in three balls to see off Malachy Loye and Francois du Plessis.
“I am very happy with how things have gone but now we need to build a lead, stay on top and close it out,” said Pattinson, who joined Notts as a virtual unknown in the close season.
“I never imagined that I would take so many wickets in my first two Championship games.
“It’s new to me and I wasn’t sure what to expect and my first target was to make sure that I pulled my weight and didn’t get smashed around too much.”
Notts openers Will Jefferson and Matt Wood failed to fire, hitting 8 and 5 respectively before Mark Wagh struck 55, an innings which included 13 fours.
Wagh was bowled by Dominic Cork, but not before a final flurry which saw three fours as he faced his final over, the dismissal drawing exuberant celebrations from Cork.
Samit Patel added 74 from 71 balls before he was stumped by Luke Sutton off Gary Keedy.
Notts were all out for 202 and Kent returned to bat the final over of the day without loss.