It completed a memorable performance from Broad in particular – who starred with the bat and took a hat-trick with the ball in India's first innings – and saw him named Man of the Match at his home ground.
The result means England lead the Test series 2-0 with two matches to play, with their dream of overtaking India in the rankings to become the world's best Test side for the first time still on track.
Provisions had been put in place for the Test match to run into a fifth day today, but proved unnecessary.
Derek Brewer, chief executive of Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club, said the event had gone exceptionally well.
He said: "It's been a terrific success for the club, and I think for the players as well.
"The quality of the cricket has been extraordinary and at times it's been pure theatre.
"When Stuart Broad got his hat-trick, that was a once-in-a-lifetime experience."
Mr Brewer said he hoped the club's success in hosting the match could help secure an Ashes Test against Australia. "We are trying to bring the Ashes here in 2013, and this should help us," he said.
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