Nottinghamshire needed less than two hours of the final day to take the six wickets they required to defeat Essex at Chelmsford, a victory that moves them up to second place in the Specsavers County Championship.
The defending champions began the day on 88 for four and were hoping to provide stubborn resistance and bat out the day for a draw.
Those hopes were immediately extinguished when Matt Milnes and Luke Fletcher each struck within the opening 15 minutes.
Milnes went on to take figures of four for 44 and Fletcher, Gurney and Patel each picked up two wickets as Essex were skittled out for 139.
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